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American seamen have three avenues of recovery against a shipowner in respect of injuries sustained on board a ship: maintenance and cure; the Jones Act; a claim of unseaworthiness.

Punitive damages are available for the first of these, but not the second. The position as regards unseaworthiness was, until recently, unclear with a Circuit split on the issue. This has now been resolved by the Supreme Court’s decision in Dutra Group v Batterton ,588- U.S.. ____ Pet Bed Plush Soft Comfy Washable Cat Dog Bed Waterloo Removable Cushion 63 53 20m CHENGYIPET LIFE Airline Approved Ultra-Comfort Designer Collapsible Travel Fashion Pet Dog Carrier, Medium, Plaid Design(2019) , to the effect that punitive damages are not recoverable. The  overwhelming historical evidence was against such damages being available in an action for unseaworthiness. A  novel remedy could not be sanctioned unless it is re­quired to maintain uniformity with Congress’s clearly expressed poli­cies, PetBemo Curious Cat Condo Portable Opening Cat Play Cube Bed with Cushion Brown, Small to MediumPink 403025cm Pink 403025cm HUAyue Dog Mesh Car Car Bag Oxford Cloth Breathable Safety Seat Pet Car Seat Cushion,Portable cage (color Pink, Size 40 30 25cm)particularly those in the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act), under which only compensatory damages were recoverable.Pink M (neck 12-15\ Pink M (neck 12-15\ Avenpets Gorgeous Design Genuine Leather Dog Collar with gold Spikes and Studs,Pink,M (Neck 12-15 )Pink Zero Dog Feeding Mat Snuffle Mat Large Dog Training Pad Pet Nose Work Blanket Non Slip Pet Activity Mat For Foraging Skill, Stress Release.

To allow punitive damages on unseaworthiness claims would create bizarre disparities in the law. First, a mariner could make a claim for punitive damages if he was injured onboard a ship, but his estate would lose the right to seek punitivedamages in a wrongful death action if he died from his injuries. Pouring Bamboo Poles Oriental Garden Patio Water Feature KitNavy bluee Chevron Medium Rectangle Indoor Outdoor Pet Dog Bed with Removable Washable Cover by Majestic Pet ProductsSecond, because unseaworthi­ness claims run against the owner of the vessel, the owner could be liable for punitive damages while the ship’s master or operator—who could be more culpable—would not be liable for such damages under the Jones Act. Nylabone Toss & Fetch Dog Toy Stick by Unknownorange Pet Educational Toys Tumbler Leaking Bowl Leaking Food Dog Bowl Education Tumbler Toys Fun Interaction (bluee orange),orangeThird, allowing punitive damages would place Amer­ican shippers at a significant competitive disadvantage and discour­age foreign-owned vessels from employing American seamen

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It’s not often that we can say “You read it first on the IISTL blog.” But it seems we may be able to, following the decision of the Court of Appeal (Males, Rose and Haddon-Cave L.JJ.) in Pet nest Footprints pet Kennel House Shape Foldable pet Mattress Dog cage pet Supplies.

The facts briefly recap thus. A charterer signed a CoA promising to come up with vast cargoes of Brazilian iron ore that would have netted the shipowner profits of something like $20 million. It didn’t, and in hindsight it was abundantly clear that it it never could have. Petface Signature Checker Quilted Dog Coat, GreyPink 7.5 US Pink 7.5 US Women's Rain Boots Polyester PVC(Polyvinyl Chloride) Fall & Winter British Boots Flat Heel Round Toe Knee High Boots Buckle Black Brown PinkThe contract was subject to a force majeure clause including floods preventing performance. Floods duly materialised; but (as was held both at first instance and on appeal) the charterer couldn’t invoke the clause, since if it had never had any cargoes in the first place the floods hadn’t prevented it doing anything. Nevertheless Teare J Pink MushroomCat Cat Show House Portable Foldable Travel Pet Cat Dog (Pink) Oster Variable Speed Motor Clipmaster and ShowmasterOuch Mousetrap with EU UK US Plug Adapter Electronic mice Trap Professional Voltage Effective and Powerful for Home Garden Black and UK Plugthat even though there was breach the damages were not $20 million, but zilch (or rather nominal). His argument was that, hindsight having shown that the shipowner wouldn’t have had a right to performance even if the cargoes had been there, the value of the lost rights was zero.

We raised an eyebrow here at the idea that a defendant who hadn’t, and never could have, performed should be able to cut damages from $20 million to zero by pointing to a force majeure clause that might have protected him but in fact didn’t. PinkM MiaoMiao Cat Dog Bed Pet Cave & House Four Seasons Universal Nest Pink Snow Pattern Warm Small Room Kennel Pet Nest,PinkmPremium 12-Piece Kit Andis Easy Clip Premium At Home Pet Grooming Kit by AndisThe Court of Appeal has now made it clear that it thinks the same way, and substituted an award of $20 million. If (it was said) a claimant showed that a defendant had failed to perform and the defendant could not invoke any exculpatory provision, there was no reason why damages should not be substantial. The reasons behind the non-performance were irrelevant,Navy Small Navy Small Nobby Set of Beds Mendoza Oval, Small, NavyOase PondoVac 5 Discharge Hose Extension as was the fact that had the defendant been able to perform in the first place he would have had an excuse.

In our view, despite the beguiling advocacy of the Institute’s own Simon Rainey QC, this is sensible and logical. Males LJ hit the nail on the head at [89] when he pithily pointed out that the breach was not inability or unwillingness to supply cargoes, but the simple fact that the cargoes, for whatever reason, were not there. Put that way, everything neatly falls into place. If you don’t perform your contract and can’t point to any excuse, you are liable for substantial damages. End of story.

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Last year we reported on two judicial review challenges to government policy on climate change, one in the Netherlands, the other in the UK.

The Netherlands challenge brought by Urgenda resulted in an order that that the Netherlands State be ordered to achieve a reduction so that the cumulative volume of Netherlands greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced at least by 25%, by the end of 2020, relative to 1990 levels. The Netherlands State appealed against the order and the Dutch Supreme Court heard the case on 24 May 2019 and a judgment is expected over the summer.

The UK challenge was brought by Plan B and sought judicial review of the UK government’s decision not to amend the 2050 target in the Climate Change Act 2008 in the light of article 2(1) (a) the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, which the UK has ratified, Pet Carrier Soft Sided Travel Bag for Small Dogs & Cats- Airline Approved, Pink 38the parties commit to:Oversize Perri's Track Style Leather Turnout Halter with Snap, BlackOxbow Western Timothy Hay (1.1kg) (Pack of 2) “Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, recognising that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change.” The challenge failed and leave to appeal was rejected earlier this year.Pet Online Small Parred Toy Swing Ring Rattan Ball bite Toy Bird cage StandPetlife Flectabed Q Thermal Pet Bed (19.5x12in) (Brown)

Since then the UK Committee on Climate Change, in line with the findings of the IPCC in October 2018, has recommended a new emissions target for the UK of net-zero greenhouse gases by 2050. The previous target was to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 (“the 2050 target”) is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. This week a statutory instrument, the Climate Change Act 2008 (2050 Target Amendment) Order 2019, P03 GPS Pet Tracker for Dog, Activity Monitor with App And Real Time, Waterproof Adjustable Collar Dogs Unlimited Range,GPS,AGPS,LBS,P03Pack of 10 Aluminium Flat Bar 2.5m Longwas laid amending the Climate Change Act 2008 so that ‘80%’ is replaced by ‘100%’.Pink CAOYU Pet fence Pet fence animal fence cage DIY practice pen box raise dog cage small animals, rabbits, rabbits, puppies and guinea pigs (color Pink)PINK Pet Dog Slow Food Bowl Puzzle Mothproof Learning Food Bowl Pet Food Repellent (color Pink).

This is a ‘net’ figure, which allows for the ability to use international carbon credits to offset emissions within an appropriate monitoring, reporting and verification framework. In addition, under s.30(1) of the Act emissions from international aviation and shipping do not count as emissions from sources in the UK. Pack of 2 Zymox Water Additive Oral Solution 8 Oz Size Pack of 2The Government have said that they will review the ‘net zero’ target within 5 years to check that other countries are following suit, and, if not, reserve the right to revert to the original 80% target.

To stabilise at 1.5 degrees over pre industrial levels by 2100 the IPCC has stated that levels of CO2 in the atmosphere should not exceed 430 parts per million, and for stabilising at 2 degrees the levels should not exceed 450 per million. Pack of 48 Generic Foam Filter for Drinkwell Stainless Steel 360, Lotus, Avalon, and Pagoda (Pack of 48 )Plastic Aquarium Decor Emulational Artificial Water Plants 8 Pcs Assorted colorMulti colord Large Multi colord Large Horsemen's Pride Mega Beach Ball Cover, 40-InchLast month a reading at a weather station in Hawaii recorded 415 parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere. The current annual rate of increase is in the order of 3 parts per million.